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Direc­tory tex-archive/language/greek/greek-fontenc


Greek font en­cod­ing def­i­ni­tion files

Gün­ter Milde

This work may be dis­tributed and/or mod­i­fied un­der the con­di­tions of the LaTeX Project Public Li­cense, ei­ther ver­sion 1.3 of this li­cense or any later ver­sion.


LaTeX in­ter­nal char­ac­ter rep­re­sen­ta­tion (LICR) macros are a ver­bose but fail­safe 7-bit ASCII en­cod­ing that works un­al­tered un­der both, 8-bit TeX and XeTeX/LuaTeX. Use cases are macro def­i­ni­tions and gen­er­ated text

This pack­age pro­vides Greek LICR macro def­i­ni­tions and en­cod­ing def­i­ni­tion files for Greek text font en­cod­ings for use with fontenc.


The LICR macro names for Greek sym­bols are cho­sen pend­ing en­dorse­ment by the TeX com­mu­nity and re­lated pack­ages.

Names for ar­chaic char­ac­ters, ac­cents/di­a­crit­ics, and punc­tu­a­tion may change in fu­ture ver­sions.




greek-fontenc.def “out­sourced” from lgrx­enc.def


ex­per­i­men­tal files xu­ni­code-greek.sty and greek-eu­enc.def: LICRs for XeTeX/LuaTeX.



Bug­fix: wrong breath­ings psil­ioxia -> dasiaoxia.



Bug­fix: Dis­able com­pos­ite defs start­ing with char macro,


fix “hia­tus” han­dling.



Fix “in­put” path in xu­ni­code-greek and greek-eu­enc.def.



greek-fontenc.sty: Greek text font en­cod­ing setup pack­age,


re­move xu­ni­code-greek.sty.



tex­tal­pha.sty and al­pha­beta.sty moved here from lgrx and up­dated to work with XeTeX/LuaTeX.


greek-fontenc.sty re­moved (ob­so­leted by tex­tal­pha.sty).



Bug­fix in greek-eu­enc.def and al­pha­beta-eu­enc.def.



Com­pat­i­bil­ity with Xe/LuaTeX in 8-bit mode,


\greekscript Tex­tCom­mand.



Fix iden­ti­fi­ca­tion of greek-eu­enc.def .



Doc­u­men­ta­tion up­date, re­move du­pli­cate code.



Fix aux­il­iary macro names in tex­tal­pha.


Con­ser­va­tive nam­ing: move def­i­ni­tion of \< and \> from greek-fontenc.def to tex­tal­pha.sty (Bu­gre­port David Kas­trup). Doc­u­men­ta­tion up­date.

TeX files


Com­mon Greek font en­cod­ing def­i­ni­tions.


LGR Greek font en­cod­ing def­i­ni­tions.

This file is the suc­ces­sor of the ba­sic LGR en­cod­ing def­i­ni­tion file which comes with ba­bel’s Greek sup­port and lgrx­enc.def from the lgrx bun­dle.


Greek sym­bols in text in­de­pen­dent of font en­cod­ing and TeX en­gine.


Generic macros for Greek sym­bols in text and math.


Com­pos­ite defin­tions for al­pha­beta.sty_ with XeTeX/LuaTeX.


Greek LICR def­i­ni­tions for XeTeX and LuaTeX. Re­quires eu­enc.

Lit­er­ate source files were con­verted with PyLit to reStruc­turedText and with Do­cu­tils to the HTML doc­u­men­ta­tion.

Doc­u­men­ta­tion and test doc­u­ments

tex­tal­pha-doc.tex, tex­tal­pha-doc.pdf

The tex­tal­pha pack­age.

al­pha­beta-doc.tex al­pha­beta-doc.pdf

The al­pha­beta pack­age.

lgrenc-test.tex, lgrenc-test.pdf

Test and us­age ex­am­ple.

greek-eu­enc-doc.tex, greek-eu­enc-doc.pdf

Ex­am­ple for use of the ex­per­i­men­tal Greek LICR def­i­ni­tions with XeTeX or LuaTeX.

greekhy­per­ref.tex, greekhy­per­ref.pdf

Greek script in PDF meta­data.

The pack­age hy­per­ref de­fines the PU font en­cod­ing which also sup­ports (mono­tonic) Greek.

Ex­per­i­men­tal files

Th­ese files are still in de­vel­op­ment and will even­tu­ally be moved to/merged with other pack­ages or re­moved in fu­ture ver­sions:


LGR Tran­scrip­tion to Greek LICR trans­for­ma­tion


If pos­si­ble, get this pack­age from your dis­tri­bu­tion us­ing its in­stal­la­tion man­ager.

Other­wise, make sure LaTeX can find the pack­age and def­i­ni­tion files:

  • Down­load and un­pack greek-fontenc.zip .

  • Copy/Move/Link files end­ing in .def or .sty to a suit­able place in the TDS and run tex­hash , or place them in the cur­rent work­ing di­rec­tory (e.g. for test­ing).


There are many al­ter­na­tives to use the Greek font en­cod­ing setup pro­vided by this pack­age/bun­dle, e.g.:

Greek text font en­cod­ings

Greek TeX font en­cod­ings are the en­vis­aged T7, LGR, and LGI. Greek let­ters and sym­bols are also de­fined in the Uni­code-based font en­cod­ings EU1 (XeTeX), EU2 (LuaTeX) and PU (hy­per­ref).


The [encguide] re­serves the name T7 for a Greek stan­dard font en­cod­ing. How­ever, up to now, there is no agree­ment on an im­ple­men­ta­tion be­cause the re­stric­tions for gen­eral text en­cod­ings are too se­vere for type­set­ting poly­tonic Greek.


The LGR font en­cod­ing is the de-facto stan­dard for type­set­ting Greek with (8-bit) LaTeX. Fonts in this en­cod­ing in­clude the CB fonts (match­ing CM), gr­times (Greek Times), Kerkis (match­ing URW Book­man), and the GFS font col­lec­tion. Setup of these fonts as Greek vari­ant to match­ing Latin fonts is fa­cil­i­tated by the sub­sti­tute­font pack­age.

The LGR font en­cod­ing al­lows to ac­cess Greek char­ac­ters via an ASCII translit­er­a­tion. This en­ables sim­ple in­put with a Latin key­board. Char­ac­ters with di­a­crit­ics can be se­lected by lig­a­ture def­i­ni­tions in the font (see [greek-us­age], [teub­ner-doc], [cb­fonts]).

A ma­jor draw­back of the translit­er­a­tion is, that you can­not ac­cess Latin let­ters if LGR is the ac­tive font en­cod­ing (e.g. in doc­u­ments or parts of doc­u­ments given the Ba­bel lan­guage greek or po­lu­tioniko­greek ). This means that for ev­ery Latin-writ­ten word or acronym an ex­plicit lan­guage-switch is re­quired. This prob­lem can only be solved via a font-en­cod­ing com­pris­ing Latin and Greek like the en­vis­aged T7 or Uni­code (with XeTeX or LuaTeX).


The ‘Iby­cus’ fonts from the pack­age iby­grk im­ple­ment an al­ter­na­tive translit­er­a­tion scheme (also ex­plained in [ba­bel-patch]). It is cur­rently not sup­ported by greek-fontenc.

The font en­cod­ing file lgienc.def from iby­cus-ba­bel pro­vides a ba­sic setup (with­out any LICR macros or com­pos­ite def­i­ni­tions).

Greek LICR macro names

This pack­age pro­vides LaTeX in­ter­nal char­ac­ter rep­re­sen­ta­tions (LICR macros) for Greek let­ters and di­a­crit­ics. Macro names were se­lected based on the fol­low­ing con­sid­er­a­tions:

The fnt­guide (sec­tion 6.4 Nam­ing con­ven­tions) rec­om­mends:

Where pos­si­ble, text sym­bols should be named as \text fol­lowed by the Adobe glyph name: for ex­am­ple \tex­tonequar­ter or \textster­ling . Sim­i­larly, math sym­bols should be named as \math fol­lowed by the glyph name, for ex­am­ple \math­onequar­ter or \math­ster­ling .

The Adobe Glyph List For New Fonts has names for many glyphs in the Greek and Cop­tic Uni­code block, but not for Greek ex­tended. The Adobe Glyph List (for ex­ist­ing fonts) lists ad­di­tional glyph names used in older fonts. As these are not in­tened for fur­ther ac­tive use, the lat­ter are not con­sid­ered in the name choice.


  • If there ex­ists a math-mode macro for a sym­bol, form the cor­re­spond­ing text macro by prepend­ing text ?


    The glyph name for the GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA is sig­ma1 , the cor­re­spond­ing math-macro is \var­sigma . The text sym­bol could be made avail­able as \textvar­sigma .


    \varep­silon and \varphi math macros map to char­ac­ters named “GREEK SMALL LETTER …”, while \\var­theta , \\varkappa , \\var­rho , and \\varpi math macros map to “GREEK … SYMBOL” Uni­code char­ac­ters.

    In Greek text, these vari­ants are in­ter­change­able. The LGR font en­cod­ing does not con­tain slots for “sym­bol” glyph vari­ants. In some Greek fonts, GREEK SMALL LETTERS use glyph vari­ants re­sem­bling the cor­re­spond­ing GREEK SYMBOL Uni­code char­ac­ter’s ref­er­ence glyph.

  • Derive macro names from Uni­code names?

    The Uni­code names list pro­vides stan­dard­ized de­scrip­tive names for all Uni­code char­ac­ters that use only cap­i­tal let­ters of the Latin al­pha­bet. While not suited for di­rect use in a LICR macros, they can be ei­ther

    1. used as in­spi­ra­tion for new LICR macro names or

    2. con­verted to LICR macro names via a de­fined set of trans­for­ma­tion rules.


    \text­fi­nal­sigma or just \fi­nal­sigma as a more de­scrip­tive name for GREEK SMALL LETTER FINAL SIGMA de­rived via the rules:

    • drop “LETTER” if the name re­mains unique,

    • drop “GREEK” if the name re­mains unique,

    • use cap­i­tal­ized name for cap­i­tal let­ters, low­er­case for “SMALL” let­ters and drop “SMALL”,

    • con­cate­nate

  • Omit the “text” pre­fix for macros that do not have a math coun­ter­part?

    • Sim­pler,

    • ease of use (less typ­ing, bet­ter read­abil­ity of source text),

    • many es­tab­lished text macro names with­out “text”,

    • there are ex­am­ples of en­cod­ing-spe­cific macros with­out the text -pre­fix, es­pe­cially for let­ters,


      \AE \DH \DJ \L \NG \OE \O \SS \TH \ae \dh \dj \guille­motleft \guille­motright \guils­inglleft \guils­inglright \i \j \l \ng \oe \o \quot­ed­blbase \quotesinglbase \ss \th (also in OT1)


      \CYR* and \cyr*


      \heb* or no pre­fix


      short de­scrip­tive names in the ara­bic part (puarenc.def )

    • text pre­fix does not mark a macro as en­cod­ing-spe­cific or “in­sert­ing a glyph”. There are e.g. font-chang­ing macros (\textbf , \tex­tit ) and en­cod­ing-chang­ing macros (\textgreek , \textcyr ).

    • Less con­sis­tent.

    • text pre­fix marks a macro as con­fined to text (as op­posed to math) mode.


    To avoid name clashes, the font en­cod­ing def­i­ni­tion files use the text pre­fix for sym­bols. Aliases (short forms, com­pat­i­bil­ity defs, etc.) can be de­fined lo­cally or in ad­di­tional pack­ages (see al­pha­beta.sty, ba­bel-greek, or teub­ner)

How to name ac­cent macros?

  • stan­dard ac­cent macros (\De­clareTex­tAc­cent def­i­ni­tions in la­tex/base/... ) are one-sym­bol macros (\' \" ... \u \v ... ) .

  • tipa.sty , xu­ni­code, and ucs use the “text” pre­fix also for ac­cents.

    How­ever, the Adobe Glyph List For New Fonts maps, e.g., “tonos” and “diere­sistonos” to 0384 GREEK TONOS and 0385 GREEK DIALYTIKA TONOS, hence text­tonos and textdi­are­sistonos should be spac­ing char­ac­ters.

  • textcomp (ts1enc.def) de­fines \cap­i­tal... ac­cents (i.e. with­out text pre­fix).

  • Use a com­mon pre­fix \tex­tac­cent... , \ac­cent... , or just \acc... (cf. \@tabac­ck­ludge )?

Cur­rently, greek-fontenc uses for di­a­crit­ics:

  • Greek names like in Uni­code, and ucsencs.def

  • The pre­fix “acc” to dis­tin­guish the macros as Tex­tAac­cent and re­duce the risc of name clashes.

  • For the end-user “sym­bol macros” (\~ \' \` \" \< \> ) are pro­vided. (The non-stan­dard macros \< and \> only with tex­tal­pha.sty.)


An al­ter­na­tive, more com­plete set of short mnemonic char­ac­ter names is the XML En­tity Def­i­ni­tions for Char­ac­ters W3C Rec­om­men­da­tion from 01 April 2010.

For glyph names of the LGR en­cod­ing see e.g. CB.enc by Apos­to­los Sy­ropou­los and xl-lgr.enc from the lib­er­tine (legacy) pack­age. lgr.cmap pro­vides a map­ping to Uni­code char­ac­ters.

A full set of \text* sym­bol macros is de­fined in ucsencs.def from the ucs pack­age.

Aliases from puenc.def en­sure that the hy­per­ref pack­age can con­vert Greek text in “LICR en­cod­ing” to a PDF-string (utf-8 en­coded in­put is used as-is).


LaTeX3 Project Team, LaTeX2ε font se­lec­tion, 2005. http://mir­ror.ctan.org/macros/la­tex/doc/fnt­guide.pdf


Frank Mit­tel­bach, Robin Fair­bairns, Werner Lem­berg, LaTeX3 Project Team, LaTeX font en­cod­ings, 2006. http://mir­ror.ctan.org/macros/la­tex/doc/encguide.pdf


Apos­to­los Sy­ropou­los, Writ­ing Greek with the greek op­tion of the ba­bel pack­age, 1997. http://www.tug.org/texlive/Con­tents/live/texmf-dist/doc/generic/ba­bel/greek-us­age.pdf


Clau­dio Bec­cari, The CB Greek fonts, Εὔτυπον, τεῦχος № 21, 2008. http://www.eu­ty­pon.gr/eu­ty­pon/pdf/e2008-21/e21-a01.pdf


Clau­dio Bec­cari, teub­ner.sty An ex­ten­sion to the greek op­tion of the ba­bel pack­age, 2011. http://mir­ror.ctan.org/macros/la­tex/con­trib/teub­ner/teub­ner-doc.pdf


Werner Lem­berg, Uni­code sup­port for the Greek LGR en­cod­ing Εὔτυπον, τεῦχος № 20, 2008. http://www.eu­ty­pon.gr/eu­ty­pon/pdf/e2008-20/e20-a03.pdf


Name Size Date Notes
README 16132 2014-12-25 14:03
README.html 42592 2014-12-25 14:04
al­pha­beta-doc.pdf 150062 2014-12-19 18:32
al­pha­beta-doc.tex 8480 2014-09-04 14:15
al­pha­beta-eu­enc.def 21124 2014-12-25 13:49
al­pha­beta-eu­enc.def.html 37671 2014-12-25 13:49
al­pha­beta-lgr.def 10319 2014-09-04 10:43
al­pha­beta-lgr.def.html 26474 2014-09-04 10:44
al­pha­beta.sty 11068 2014-09-04 10:26
al­pha­beta.sty.html 29225 2014-12-25 13:49
di­a­crit­ics.pdf 282579 2014-12-20 21:13
di­a­crit­ics.tex 6393 2014-12-20 21:13
greek-eu­enc-doc.pdf 69419 2014-12-21 00:12
greek-eu­enc-doc.tex 22930 2014-12-20 20:56
greek-eu­enc.def 33533 2014-12-12 18:10
greek-eu­enc.def.html 51803 2014-12-25 13:49
greek-fontenc.def 17528 2014-12-18 18:52
greek-fontenc.def.html 38542 2014-12-25 13:48
greekhy­per­ref.pdf 219807 2014-12-21 00:12
greekhy­per­ref.tex 5263 2014-12-12 18:19
lgr2licr.lua 4601 2013-07-18 11:57
lgr2licr.lua.html 6914 2013-07-18 12:57
lgrenc-test.pdf 290789 2014-12-21 10:35
lgrenc-test.tex 16404 2014-12-21 10:35
lgrenc.def 37680 2014-09-04 11:35
lgrenc.def.html 66217 2014-12-25 13:48
tex­tal­pha-doc.pdf 331587 2014-12-21 00:16
tex­tal­pha-doc.tex 11142 2014-12-20 21:00
tex­tal­pha.sty 16866 2014-12-25 13:46
tex­tal­pha.sty.html 36919 2014-12-25 13:49

Down­load the con­tents of this pack­age in one zip archive (1.4M).

greek-fontenc – LICR macros and en­cod­ing def­i­ni­tion files for Greek

The pack­age pro­vides Greek LICR macro def­i­ni­tions and en­cod­ing def­i­ni­tion files for Greek text font en­cod­ings for use with fontenc.

Pack­age De­tailsgreek-fontenc
Ver­sion0.12 2014-12-25
Li­censeThe LaTeX Project Public Li­cense 1.3
Copy­right2013 Günter Milde
Main­tainerGün­ter Milde
Con­tained inTeXlive as greek-fontenc
MikTeX as greek-fontenc
Topics sup­port for type­set­ting Greek
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