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Direc­tory tex-archive/language/hyphenation/ruhyphen

-*-coding: koi8-r;-*-

                         ruhyphen package
           (Collection of Russian hyphenation patterns)

                  Version 1.7 (March 23, 2003)

This package contains hyphenation patterns for Russian language,
which can be used for various Cyrillic font encodings. It contains
all Russian hyphenation patterns we know of (currently, these are
seven different patterns, --- see below), so you can choose your
favorite pattern. :-)

Copyright notice and distribution conditions are given in the
beginning of the file `ruhyphen.tex'. It applies to all *.tex files
in this package (listed below).  Note that seven pattern files
(ruhyph*.tex, except ruhyphen.tex) are copyrighted by their

Thus, all patterns are freely distributable.

To install, copy all *.tex files to your texmf tree. For example,
create a directory $TEXMF/tex/generic/ruhyphen/ and put all *.tex
files there.

Before creating a format file, edit the file ruhyphen.tex and select
the pattern and font encoding to use (see below for the list of
patterns and supported font encodings).

Usually, hyphenation setup is based on file `hyphen.cfg' which loads
hyphenation patterns in proper encodings for languages which you will
use. It is highly recommended to install BABEL package which provides
a unified mechanism for hyphenation configurations, and comes with
it's own `hyphen.cfg'.  This is recommended not only to LaTeX users,
but also if you will use a `cyrplain' bundle of the T2 package to
`russify' plain TeX-based formats.

You have two options: either use patterns for Russian language in
separate TeX \language (so to get proper hyphenation you must switch
languages explicitly in your documents using commands like \Russian,
\English, \French, etc), or use one `combined' Russian-English
language.  If you will use only Russian and English languages in your
documents, the latter option is more convenient (in this case, there
will be no need to switch between Russian and English languages to get
proper hyphenation).  This option is recommended especially for
Plain-TeX based macro packages: Plain TeX, AMS-TeX, Texinfo, BLUe TeX,
etc; it can be convenient for LaTeX as well, if you mostly typeset
bilingual Russian-English documents.

In case of using BABEL's mechanism of hyphenation setup, edit the file
language.dat (it is part of BABEL, and could usually be found in the
`tex/generic/config' directory of the TDS-compliant TEXMF tree).  In
the case of using separate languages, use `ruhyphen.tex' as the
Russian hyphenation file, i.e. put the following lines:

english hyphen
russian ruhyphen

For combined Russian-English patterns, use `ruenhyph.tex' as the
hyphenation file, i.e. put the following lines:

ruseng ruenhyph

In both cases, lines for other languages could be commented or leaved
depending on your needs.

Note that it is better in general to have original English patterns
preloaded for the default language, so you may use also the following:

english hyphen
ruseng ruenhyph

In this case, documents in English will be hyphenated exactly as they
should, and English fragments inside a Russian text will be hyphenated
as close as possible to this. This variant requires, however, more TeX
memory for patterns, and you should not forget to switch \language to
Russian when needed (using babel with `russian' as the last option
will do this automatically).

If you refuse to install BABEL, you can create your own `hyphen.cfg'
file containing e.g. the following lines:

%\def\English{\language0 }
%\def\Russian{\language1 }
\input hyphen
\input ruhyphen
\lefthyphenmin=2 \righthyphenmin=2 % disallow x- or -x breaks; -xx OK
%\lefthyphenmin=2 \righthyphenmin=3 % disallow x- or -xx breaks

or simply

\input ruenhyph

Basically, if you need to typeset multilingual documents, --- you
should use LaTeX and T2* Cyrillic encodings. :-)

Note that, when running the file ruhyphen.tex (or ruenhyph.tex)
through TeX, the only global effect is execution of \patterns (and
\hyphenation for exceptions) for the current language, and also
setting the \lefthyphenmin and \righthyphenmin to 2. In particular,
no global changes of \lccode, \uccode, \catcode, etc. values are
made. So, to activate hyphenation, you have to set (at least) the
\lccode values for lowercase and uppercase Russian letters globally in
your TeX file to match the font encoding (and maybe also make other
settings, like \uccode and \sfcode). This is usually done in separate
packages (where those font encodings are defined).

Files in this package are organized in a very flexible and compact
way, sharing the same hyphenation pattern files for different font
encodings. Thus, having (currently available) seven different patterns
and five different font encodings, we have 7*5=35 different possible
combinations of pattern and encoding (which is specified in the file
ruhyphen.tex), or, adding also combined `Russian-English' patterns
(loaded via ruenhyph.tex), we have 70 different combinations
supported! It is very easy to add the support for any new pattern or
font encoding, --- just add an additional file ruhyph<pattern>.tex for
new patterns (and generate the corresponding file cyryo<pattern>.tex
using `mkcyryo' script), or a file koi2<encoding>.tex for new
encoding, and add corresponding lines to `ruhyphen.tex'.

Descriptions of files:

1) main hyphenation files

These are Russian hyphenation patterns created by different people.
Some patterns were generated with `patgen', some were created
manually. The quality of all patterns is comparable. Nevertheless, for
the highest quality of hyphenation we recommend using ruhyphal.tex
(which is switched on by default). The patterns are stored in koi8-r
Cyrillic encoding (in a form both compact and convenient for reading
and editing by humans), but we provide a means for re-encoding of
patterns (using some TeX hackery) to any desired font encoding (see
below), so there is no need to modify these main files. All patterns
were (re)named according to the standard scheme ruhyph*.tex, where `*'
denotes the origin of patterns. The following files are included into
this collection (in alphabetical order):

  10-Mar-03 created by Alexander I. Lebedev <>
  (previously were an extended and corrected variant of Dimitri Vulis'
  patterns, but now are independenly generated with patgen, using
  the rus-ispell dictionary).
  v1.0b4a 23-Jul-98 of `ashyphen' created by Andrey Slepuhin
  31-Dec-89 is a version found in a CyrTUG TeX distribution
  The original patterns created by Dimitri Vulis <>,
  re-encoded to koi8-r.
  30-May-98 patterns created by Mikhail Grinchuk <>.
  Created manually, with the aim to get more or less good results
  with smallest feasible memory usage. Current version hyphenates
  with relatively big number of errors, but patterns are really small.
  22-Jul-00 Dimitri Vulis' patterns extended by M. Vorontsova and
  S. Lvovski <>, and later modified by A.Cherepanov,
  V.Kryukov and A.Shen,
  v2.01 beta 23-Mar-03 of `znhyphen' created by Sergei V. Znamenskii

2) additional patterns for the letter `cyryo'

Generated from the base files using `mkcyryo' script, these files
provide patterns for the `cyryo' letter to make its behavior with
respect to hyphenation identical to `cyre'. This can be done by
making \lccode of `cyryo' equal to the code of `cyre' -- this is not the
best solution because it will lead to incorrect work of \lowercase,
and, moreover, in LaTeX it is forbidden to change \lccode values.
These files should be used with the corresponding main hyphenation

There are some words with two `cyryo' letters (the following examples
were provided by Alexander I. Lebedev):

�ң�ף������ �ң�ף������ �ң��ף������� �ң���̣���� �ң����̣���
�ң����̣��� �ң�ۣ������ ����ң�ף������� ����ң��ף������� ����ң���̣����

because of this, it is insufficient to add patterns with only one
`cyryo' letter, so we generate also patterns with two `cyryo' (however,
in practice all of them are `reduced' by the `reduce-patt' script :).

  generated from ruhyphal.tex
  generated from ruhyphas.tex
  generated from ruhyphct.tex
  generated from ruhyphdv.tex
  generated from ruhyphmg.tex
  generated from ruhyphvl.tex
  generated from ruhyphzn.tex

  rules for generation of `cyryo*.tex' files. Run `make distclean'
  to remove all `cyryo*.tex' files; run `make' to regenerate them.
  shell script used for generation of `cyryo*.tex' files
  a perl script which could be used to verify which patterns do not
  correspond to `real' words present in a wordlist. It is used by
  `mkcyryo' script to remove unnecessary patterns. This was suggested
  by Alexander Lebedev, and requires his excellent rus-ispell dictionary
  available at
  (we used version 0.99f4 in preparation of this package).

  The following command will generate a lowercased wordlist with
  letter `cyryo', needed for `mkcyryo' and `reduce-patt' scripts:

  cat russian.dict | ispell -d russian -e | tr ' �-�' '\012�-�' | \
    grep � | ./sortkoi8 | uniq > /tmp/.wl-lc-cyryo

  Remove `grep �' from a pipe to get a full lowercased wordlist
  /tmp/.wl-lc-full useful for `reduce-patt' in general.

3) TeX files for re-encoding of patterns from koi8-r to various TeX
   font encodings.

These files use commands like \lccode `\<letter>=<number> (instead of
\lccode <number>=<number>), where <letter> is an 8-bit letter code (in
koi8-r encoding, in which patterns are stored) and <number> is the
slot number in the destination font encoding. This makes the patterns
"stable" against reencoding to any Cyrillic encoding, and also usable
with non-standard "on the fly" reencoding mechanisms like TCX or TCP
(switched on at TeX format creation phase) used in some TeX
implementations (provided that these transformations are 1-to-1 in
*all* the range 128--255, -- otherwise the results may be incorrect).
This was suggested by Alexander Cherepanov <> (we'd
like to thank him also for other useful suggestions on the ruhyphen
package). However, we do not recommend using non-standard mechanisms
like TCX or TCP in general (in favor of the portable and more powerful
approach with active characters provided by inputenc LaTeX package and
also used in cyrplain package).

As suggested by Alexander Fryntov, these files also include support
for five additional Cyrillic letters present in koi8-ru encoding, so
that they could be used e.g. for the Ukrainian hyphenation patterns.

  koi8-r to T2A encoding (for Russian letters, also T2B, T2C, T2D, X2).
  This is the main font encoding to be used for typesetting Cyrillic
  with TeX.
  koi8-r to UCY (Omega Unicode Cyrillic) encoding.
  koi8-r to LCY (similar to cp866) encoding used e.g. in `old' LH
  koi8-r to OT2 7-bit Cyrillic TeX encoding used e.g. in
  AMS Washington Cyrillic fonts (wncy*) and LH fonts (wn*).
  To get better hyphenation and kerning, you may use virtual fonts
  without WN-ligatures, like WLCY or WL fonts.
  koi8-r to koi8-r setup (needed anyway to setup \lccode values).
  Note, that `koi' is bad name for TeX font encoding.

  Set the \catcode values of the lowercase Russian letters in the
  koi8-r encoding to 12. The purpose of this file is to avoid strange
  effects in case of unusual catcodes (e.g. active) for the letters
  used in hyphenation files.

4) files to be used by users

  main `head' file which inputs the specified patterns and re-encodes
  them to the specified font encoding. Users can edit this file,
  selecting the patterns and font encodings.
  alternative `head' file which inputs combined Russian-English
  patterns.  Do not mix patterns for 7-bit Cyrillic font encodings
  (OT2) with English patterns! This can be used only for 8-bit
  Cyrillic font encodings (and, of course, for UCY).

5) other files

  this file
  Avoid -xx breaks for English when \righthyphenmin=2. Used by
  This file contains additional hyphenation patterns including the
  character hyphen `-'.  It enables the hyphenation of words containing
  explicit hyphens when using fonts with \hyphenchar\font <> `\-
  (e.g. T2* encoded fonts).  Derived from `hypht1.tex' by Bernd Raichle;
  see comments there. :-) To switch on hyphenation of words containing
  explicit hyphens, one should (apart from preloading this file into
  format) set \lccode`\-=`\-, and also \defaulthyphenchar=127 before
  loading fonts (i.e. before \usepackage[T2A]{fontenc}), or set
  \hyphenchar\font=127 for already preloaded font. Note that loading
  these additional patterns requires significant additional amount
  of TeX hyphenation trie size.

  shell script; simple wrapper for `sort' to sort Russian texts
  in koi8-r encoding alphabetically.
  Perl script for sorting hyphenation files (Latin or Cyrillic in
  koi8-r encoding).
  shell script for re-encoding between cp1251, koi8-r, cp866,
  iso-8859-5, and Mac Cyrillic charsets (not used here).

The following properties of patterns are customizable in the file

* which font encoding to use. Note that this setting has nothing to do
  with the input encodings of your (La)TeX documents!

* which of seven available pattern files to use.

* [1st optional line] whether to load patterns for the letter `cyryo'.

* [2nd optional line] whether to load patterns which enable
  hyphenation of words containing explicit hyphens (only in case of
  using T2* font encodings). See the above description of hypht2.tex
  for additional information.

* [3rd optional line] whether to load two patterns .ne8 and 8ne. which
  disallow breaking off the `ne' from a word (where `n' and `e' are
  corresponding Russian letters; `ne' in Russian means `not' and breaking
  it can confuse the reader). This was suggested by Alexander Lebedev.

* [4th optional line] whether to load patterns which disallow breaking
  a consonant followed by hard sign from a word. Such words are absent
  in `modern' Russian language, but were used when `old orthography'
  was in use. This was suggested by Alexander V. Lukyanov.

And last but not least,

* whether to load the file ruhyphen.tex or ruenhyph.tex (for combined
  Russian-English hyphenation).

Happy TeXing!

Mail your comments, questions, and Russian hyphenation patterns which
are absent in this collection to:

    Werner Lemberg <>
    Vladimir Volovich <>


Name Size Date Notes
BUGS 2540 2003-03-23 05:51:00
Makefile 166 2000-01-15 12:00:00
README 15429 2003-03-23 05:52:00
README.ruhyphal 6825 2003-03-04 11:28:00
catkoi.tex 1048 2000-10-20 02:00:00
cyryoal.tex 1819 2003-03-23 05:34:00
cyryoas.tex 525 2003-03-23 05:34:00
cyryoct.tex 2985 2003-03-23 05:35:00
cyryodv.tex 2220 2003-03-23 05:35:00
cyryomg.tex 287 2003-03-23 05:35:00
cyryovl.tex 2220 2003-03-23 05:35:00
cyryozn.tex 1394 2003-03-23 05:35:00
enrhm2.tex 3991 1999-08-28 09:58:00
hyphen.rules 5683 1999-06-19 02:00:00
hypht2.tex 541 2000-10-18 02:00:00
koi2koi.tex 1044 2000-10-20 02:00:00
koi2lcy.tex 1041 2000-10-20 02:00:00
koi2ot2.tex 1673 2000-10-21 02:00:00
koi2t2a.tex 1055 2000-10-20 02:00:00
koi2ucy.tex 1096 2000-10-20 02:00:00
mkcyryo 651 1999-08-25 04:54:00
reduce-patt 231 1999-08-27 07:52:00
ruenhyph.tex 83 1998-08-03 02:00:00
ruhyphal.tex 29012 2003-03-10 01:28:00
ruhyphas.tex 32586 2003-03-23 06:22:00
ruhyphct.tex 35039 1999-08-25 04:54:00
ruhyphdv.tex 23360 1999-08-25 04:54:00
ruhyphen.tex 1633 2003-03-23 05:09:00
ruhyphmg.tex 2453 2000-01-15 12:00:00
ruhyphvl.tex 24912 2000-10-18 02:00:00
ruhyphzn.tex 23817 2003-03-23 08:44:00
sorthyph 271 2000-11-21 12:00:00
sortkoi8 583 1998-08-03 02:00:00
trans 395 1999-10-03 02:00:00

Down­load the com­plete con­tents of this di­rec­tory in one zip archive (106.4k).

ruhy­phen – Rus­sian hy­phen­ation

A col­lec­tion of Rus­sian hy­phen­ation pat­terns sup­port­ing a num­ber of Cyril­lic font en­cod­ings, in­clud­ing T2, UCY (Omega Uni­code Cyril­lic), LCY, LWN (OT2), and koi8-r.

Li­censeThe LaTeX Project Public Li­cense
Main­tainerVladimir Volovich
Con­tained inTeXLive as ruhy­phen
MiKTeX as ruhy­phen
Topics sup­port for type­set­ting Rus­sian
macros or ta­bles for hy­phen­ation
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