# Direc­tory tex-archive/language/multilingual/eurotex

EuroTeX version 1.1, March 1997.

This program package contains a multilingual TeX adaption for Europeans.
By the means of this package, non-English letters may be used within the
manuscript. All letters in the font ISO Latin 1 will be treated exactly
as English letters and create no problems by hyphenation, writing to file,
etc. Hyphenation also works without problems for the other letters in the
dc fonts. The package contains hyphenation patterns for English, German,
French, Italian, Polish, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, Icelandic and Finnish.
It may easily be extended to more languages, or some languages may be
exchanged. The file multling.tex contains the necessary definitions.
The file eng-plain-dc.* gives a complete description.

The system is developed on a Sun Sparcstation. It is assumed that
eight-bit fonts are used, both in TeX and by typing into files. This is
only possible in TeX 3.x. This package is developed on TeX 3.141.

In TeX, the dc fonts must be used; by typing into files, ISO Latin 1 must
be used. X-Windows 11.5 contains ISO Latin 1 (ISO 8859/1). It can be made
available by setting
setenv LC_CTYPE iso_8859_1
stty -istrip cs8    #Solaris
in your .cshrc file. The above definitions enable you to read non-English
letters. To be able to type, say, Scandinavian and German letters, you may
copy the file keyboard/.Xmodmap.us to your user and in your
.xinitrc file set
xmodmap .Xmodmap.us
(here, American keyboard is assumed). With these definitions the most used
extra characters will appear by means of the "Alt" key on fairly logical
keys. They are valid in command mode and in the vi editor. Other editors
(e.g. emacs-19.28) may require that they are defined in another way.
Obviously, the characters can also be defined on other keys.

For this program system to work correctly, the following changes must be
done in the source code of TeX (Web2c 14.05.1992).

(The below changes in the file tex.ch must be done before configure has been
run. In configure, tex.ch is copied into ctex.ch, and ctex.ch is used in make.
If TeX is generated anew without running configure, one should ensure that
the changes in tex.ch also appears in ctex.ch. In practice, tex.ch and
ctex.ch should be equal.)

in the file tex/tex.ch the assignment
@!trie_size=24000;
should be replaced by:
@!trie_size=60000;

in the file tex/tex.ch the assignments
@!trie_op_size=750;
@!neg_trie_op_size=-750;
should be replaced by:
@!trie_op_size=2000;
@!neg_trie_op_size=-2000;

in the file tex/tex.ch the lines
@y
for i:=0 to @'37 do xchr[i]:=chr(i);
for i:=@'177 to @'377 do xchr[i]:=chr(i);
@z
must be replaced by:
@y
for i:=0 to @'37 do xchr[i]:=chr(i);
for i:=@'177 to @'377 do xchr[i]:=chr(i);
xchr[@'377]:=chr(@'337);
xchr[@'337]:=chr(@'377);
@z

in the file tex/tex.ch the lines
@x
@<Character |k| cannot be printed@>=
(k<" ")or(k>"~")
@y
@<Character |k| cannot be printed@>=
(k<" ")or((k>"~")and(k<192))or(k=215)or(k=223)or(k=247)
@z
must be inserted before the section
% [4.51] Open the pool file

in the file lib/site.h the line
#undef  NONASCII
must be replaced by:
#define NONASCII

The suggested trie_size values should suffice for most installations
with not more than 10 languages.

The files under eurotex/inputs must be put on the directory inputs.
In the file plain.tex under inputs the line
\input hyphen
must be replaced by:
\input multling
Further, the file hyphen.tex must change name:
mv hyphen.tex enghyph.tex

Then TeX (i.e. initex and virtex) must be generated anew (with make),
and a new version of plain.fmt under formats must be made.
TeX is then ready for use.

Under eurotex/doc there are tex, dvi and ps files in English, German
and Norwegian with a description of the TeX extensions.
The tex files can be run only after the TeX extensions have been
implemented.

The files under eurotex/bin are conversion files. They are assumed to lie
under /local/bin, but may of course be put on any directory in your PATH.
The address in the last line of the files iso2tex and tex2iso
must in that case be set to the directory where the files are put.

Good luck!
Ivar Aavatsmark
ivar.aavatsmark@nho.hydro.com

PS
The following slip is observed for TeX 3.141 on Solaris 2.3:
TeX will accept non-ascii characters (like � � � � � � �) in file names
and give correct treatment of such files. However, the non-ascii characters
in the file name will be replaced by code 0 (^^@) or 1 (^^A) in the messages
on the display. With a tex file with the name "w�rme.tex" one will get
the following message:

> tex w�rme
This is TeX, C Version 3.141
(w^^@rme.tex
Default language: English
[1] )
Output written on w^^@rme.dvi (1 page, xxx bytes).
Transcript written on w^^@rme.log.
>

The created dvi and log files will, however, get the correct names
"w�rme.dvi" and "w�rme.log".

PPS
Two of the macros defined in multling.tex, \ggg and \lll, collide
with the AMS definitions. If one wants to include the AMS characters
in TeX, the following changes in the file amssym.tex must be done.
The 4 lines below are commented out and replaced by the succeeding 6.
With these changes in amssym.tex, the AMS definitions can be included,
and all macros will work as they should.
%\newsymbol\lll 136E
% \let\llless\lll
%\newsymbol\ggg 136F
% \let\gggtr\ggg
\newsymbol\llless 136E
\newsymbol\gggtr 136F
\ifx\lllhyph\undefined \let\lll=\llless
\else\def\lll{\relax\ifmmode\llless\else\lllhyph\fi} \fi
\ifx\ggghyph\undefined \let\ggg=\gggtr
\else\def\ggg{\relax\ifmmode\gggtr\else\ggghyph\fi} \fi

PPPS
by replacing the cm fonts by the dc font in the definitions of the text fonts.
We have made such an adaption, but it is not available on anonymous ftp.

PPPPS
The EuroTeX version will not treat calls to cm text fonts correctly.
The character sequences ! and ? are not ligatures for � and � in EuroTeX.
The macro \it\\$ is not defined as the pound character � in EuroTeX.
To be able to run received TeX files with calls to cm text fonts, one can
in addition to the above multilingual TeX version make a TeX version which
does not call multling.tex, but calls enghyph.tex instead. Such a version
could be called cmtex. The above changes in the source code of TeX do no
harm for cmtex, so that cmtex will for all practical purposes be equal to
the original American TeX.

CHANGES

In version 1.1 new hyphenation patterns for French, Italian, Polish
and Swedish are used.

In version 1.0 the macros \S \! \pound \{ \} \backslash \silohi \siltgt
\sigtlt \sigtgt gave wrong results if they were used in connection with
\uppercase or \lowcase. This error has been removed in version 1.1.

Name Notes
bin
doc
inputs
keyboard

## Files

Name Size Date Notes
LESMEG 6803 1997-03-16 01:00:00
LIESMICH 7728 1997-03-16 01:00:00